A new study published in the Journal of Psychology examined how psychological abuse and jealousy might present in two different forms of narcissism – grandiose and vulnerable. The former exhibits what you'd typically consider narcissistic behaviour – arrogance, entitlement, and self-centredness. The latter has an equally inflated ego but tends to be "timid, embarrassed, and anxious, with a frail self-esteem that is influenced and regulated by the responses of others," according to the researchers. Subtle, but insidious.
Researchers surveyed 473 people in stable relationships to assess their personalities, behaviours toward their partners, and levels of romantic jealousy. They found that both forms of narcissism are linked to psychological abuse, but in different ways. While grandiose narcissism was directly associated with obviously psychological abuse while vulnerable narcissism was linked only indirectly through romantic jealously.
"These results can be understood by taking into consideration previous studies, which have highlighted that vulnerable narcissists experience high anxiety within interpersonal relationships, are highly sensitive to separation signals, and feel greater distress at the time of separation," the researchers state. "These individual characteristics, in turn, could reflect higher vigilance to potential threats to their own romantic relationships, consequently increasing their jealousy feelings."
Of course not everyone who gets jealous in relationship are narcissists (some argue it's an inherited response with evolutionary roots) but it could be a factor to be cautious of. Especially if you've noticed any of these other nine signs you're dealing with a narcissist.